Kaolin - Pectrolyte (Kaolin) is a layered silicate mineral. Pectrolyte (Kaolin) is used in ceramics, medicine, coated paper, as a food additive, in toothpaste, as a light diffusing material in white incandescent light bulbs, and in cosmetics. Until the early 1990s it was the active substance of anti-diarrhoea medicine Kaopectate.
Indication: Used for upset stomach and diarrhea, a traditional medicine used in China, South America and Africa. Pectrolyte (Kaolin) is also used to treat AIDs-related diarrhea. Pectrolyte (Kaolin) based bandages are also under investigation.
Pectrolyte (Kaolin) is an adsorptive agent.
Potassium Chloride - A white crystal or crystalline powder used as an electrolyte replenisher, in the treatment of hypokalemia, in buffer solutions, and in fertilizers and explosives.
Indication: For use as an electrolyte replenisher and in the treatment of hypokalemia.
The potassium ion is in the principle intracellular cation of most body tissues. Potassium ions participate in a number of essential physiological processes including the maintenance of intracellular tonicity, the transmission of nerve impulses, the contraction of cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle, and the maintenance of normal renal function. The intracellular concentration of potassium is approximately 150 to 160 mEq per liter. The normal adult plasma concentration is 3.5 to 5 mEq per liter. An active ion transport system maintains this gradient across the plasma membrane. Potassium is a normal dietary constituent and under steady-state conditions the amount of potassium absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine. The usual dietary intake of potassium is 50 to 100 mEq per day. Potassium depletion will occur whenever the rate of potassium loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract exceeds the rate of potassium intake. Such depletion usually develops as a consequence of therapy with diuretics, primarily or secondary hyperaldosteronism, diabetic ketoacidosis, or inadequate replacement of potassium in patients on prolonged parenteral nutrition. Depletion can develop rapidly with severe diarrhea, especially if associated with vomiting. Potassium depletion due to these causes is usually accompanied by concomitant loss of chloride and is manifested by hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Potassium depletion may produce weakness, fatigue, disturbances of cardiac rhythm (primarily ectopic beats), prominent U-waves in the electrocardiogram, and, in advanced cases, flaccid paralysis and/or impaired ability to concentrate urine. If potassium depletion associated with metabolic alkalosis cannot be managed by correcting the fundamental cause of the deficiency, e.g., where the patient requires long-term diuretic therapy, supplemental potassium in the form of high potassium food or Pectrolyte (Potassium Chloride) may be able to restore normal potassium levels. In rare circumstances (e.g., patients with renal tubular acidosis) potassium depletion may be associated with metabolic acidosis and hyperchloremia. In such patients, potassium replacement should be accomplished with potassium salts other than the chloride, such as potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, potassium acetate, or potassium gluconate.
Ions of sodium and chlorine are the major inorganic components of the extracellular fluid, maintaining an appropriate osmotic pressure of blood plasma and extracellular fluid. Isotonic solution of Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) fills a deficit of body fluids during dehydration. Hypertonic solution of Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) for IV injection provides a correction of osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid and blood plasma. When applied topically in ophthalmology Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) has anti-edema effect.
Why is Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) prescribed?
Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) as isotonic solution: the dehydration of various origins. To maintain the volume of blood plasma during and after surgery. As a solvent for various drugs.
Hypertonic solution: violations of water-electrolyte metabolism: lack of sodium and chlorine ions; hypoosmotic dehydration of various origins (due to prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, burns with a gastric fistula, pulmonary hemorrhage, intestinal bleeding).
Eye drops and ointment: irritation of the cornea with inflammatory and allergic diseases (combined therapy).
Dosage and administration
Isotonic Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) solution used as injected iv, sc, and enemas and is also used for washing wounds, eyes, mucous nasal cavity. Often administered as IV depending on the clinical situation up to 3 L / day.
Hypertonic Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) solution injected intravenous. Single dose for IV jet injection can be 10-30 ml. For conditions requiring immediate replenishment of sodium and chloride ions Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) is administered as IV infusion at a dose of 100 ml.
Locally and externally applied depending on the dosage form and regimen.
Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) side effects, adverse reactions
For external and local application adverse reactions to this date have not been established.
Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) contraindications
Hypernatremia, hyperhydration, the threat of pulmonary edema, cerebral edema.
With careful use of large amounts of Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) in patients with impaired renal excretory function and hypokalemia. The injection of large amounts of solution can lead to chloride acidosis, hyperhydration, increased excretion of potassium from the body.
Hypertonic solution of Pectrolyte (Sodium Chloride) do not applied SC and IM.
With prolonged use is necessary to monitor the concentration of electrolytes in the plasma and the daily urine output.
The temperature of infusion solution should be 38 °C.
Sodium Lactate - Pectrolyte (Sodium Lactate) bicarbonate is a white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Indication: Pectrolyte (Sodium Lactate) bicarbonate is used for the treatment of metabolic acidosis which may occur in severe renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, extracorporeal circulation of blood, cardiac arrest and severe primary lactic acidosis. Also is indicated in severe diarrhea which is often accompanied by a significant loss of bicarbonate. Further indicated in the treatment of certain drug intoxications, including barbiturates (where dissociation of the barbiturateprotein complex is desired), in poisoning by salicylates or methyl alcohol and in hemolytic reactions requiring alkalinization of the urine to diminish nephrotoxicity of blood pigments.
Intravenous Pectrolyte (Sodium Lactate) bicarbonate therapy increases plasma bicarbonate, buffers excess hydrogen ion concentration, raises blood pH and reverses the clinical manifestations of acidosis.
Pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs, medications or other health care products: